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结构体 ( Structures )

数组允许定义可存储相同类型数据项的变量,结构是 C 编程中另一种用户自定义的可用的数据类型,它允许您存储不同类型的数据项。

结构体
结构体

结构用于表示一条记录,假设您想要跟踪图书馆中书本的动态,您可能需要跟踪每本书的下列属性:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Subject
  • Book ID

定义结构

为了定义结构,您必须使用 struct 语句。struct 语句定义了一个包含多个成员的新的数据类型,struct 语句的格式如下:


struct structure_tag {

   member definition;
   member definition;
   ...
   member definition;
} one-or-more-structure-variables;  

  • structure_tag 是结构体标签,是可选的
  • 每个成员定义(member definition)都是一个普通变量定义,例如int i; 或浮动f; 或任何其他有效的变量定义。
  • 在结构定义的最后,最后一个分号之前,您可以指定一个或多个结构变量,但这是可选的。

例如声明Book结构的方式:


struct Books { 
   char title[50]; 
   char author[50]; 
   char subject[100]; 
  int book_id; 
} book;

访问结构成员

要访问结构的任何成员,我们使用成员访问运算符(.) 成员访问运算符就是结构变量名和结构成员的英文句点。 以下示例显示如何在程序中使用结构及访问结构成员-


#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
 
struct Books {
   char  title[50];
   char  author[50];
   char  subject[100];
   int   book_id;
};
 
int main( ) {

   struct Books Book1;        /* Declare Book1 of type Book */
   struct Books Book2;        /* Declare Book2 of type Book */
 
   /* book 1 specification */
   strcpy( Book1.title, "C Programming");
   strcpy( Book1.author, "Nuha Ali"); 
   strcpy( Book1.subject, "C Programming Tutorial");
   Book1.book_id = 6495407;

   /* book 2 specification */
   strcpy( Book2.title, "Telecom Billing");
   strcpy( Book2.author, "Zara Ali");
   strcpy( Book2.subject, "Telecom Billing Tutorial");
   Book2.book_id = 6495700;
 
   /* print Book1 info */
   printf( "Book 1 title : %s\n", Book1.title);
   printf( "Book 1 author : %s\n", Book1.author);
   printf( "Book 1 subject : %s\n", Book1.subject);
   printf( "Book 1 book_id : %d\n", Book1.book_id);

   /* print Book2 info */
   printf( "Book 2 title : %s\n", Book2.title);
   printf( "Book 2 author : %s\n", Book2.author);
   printf( "Book 2 subject : %s\n", Book2.subject);
   printf( "Book 2 book_id : %d\n", Book2.book_id);

   return 0;
}

结果:

%title插图%num

结构的函数调用

函数可以把结构作为参数调用。就和调用其他变量和指针一样。


Live Demo
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
 
struct Books {
   char  title[50];
   char  author[50];
   char  subject[100];
   int   book_id;
};

/* function declaration */
void printBook( struct Books book );

int main( ) {

   struct Books Book1;        /* Declare Book1 of type Book */
   struct Books Book2;        /* Declare Book2 of type Book */
 
   /* book 1 specification */
   strcpy( Book1.title, "C Programming");
   strcpy( Book1.author, "Nuha Ali"); 
   strcpy( Book1.subject, "C Programming Tutorial");
   Book1.book_id = 6495407;

   /* book 2 specification */
   strcpy( Book2.title, "Telecom Billing");
   strcpy( Book2.author, "Zara Ali");
   strcpy( Book2.subject, "Telecom Billing Tutorial");
   Book2.book_id = 6495700;
 
   /* print Book1 info */
   printBook( Book1 );

   /* Print Book2 info */
   printBook( Book2 );

   return 0;
}

void printBook( struct Books book ) {

   printf( "Book title : %s\n", book.title);
   printf( "Book author : %s\n", book.author);
   printf( "Book subject : %s\n", book.subject);
   printf( "Book book_id : %d\n", book.book_id);
}

结果:

%title插图%num

 

Posted in C语言, C语言

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